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Coronary artery bypass grafting cabg or heart bypass surgery

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A graft is a blood vessel which is use to bypass a blocked artery. Normally, graft is taken from the internal mammary artery in the chest, or the saphenous veins from the leg, or in rare instances from the radial artery in the arm. The graft is attached above and below the area in the artery where there is a blockage, so that the blood can use the new, unblocked path to flow freely to the heart. Cardiologists take a graft from another part of the body and then attach one end of the graft to the aorta and the other end to the coronary artery below the blockage.

Arteries which carry blood from the heart to the whole body, and while coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscles. Once coronary artery gets blocked, a new channel is created in order to bypass the artery blockage, called bypass graft surgery. The procedure is also known with a name of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, CABG or open heart surgery or commonly just the bypass surgery. When artery gets narrowed to about 70% of its normal size, the artery is basically a blocked artery. Due to blockage decrease in the supply of blood and oxygen happen to the heart and over time can lead to chest pain or a heart attack. Sometime blockage can be relieved by angioplasty and stinting; however, in case of severe blockage usually requires bypass surgery. Moreover, in situations when angioplasty do not gets the success, or the blockage is difficult to clear by angioplasty, or in case of severe blockages in multiple major vessels, in such situations Cardiologist suggest coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Arteriosclerosis is a common arterial disorder characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of arterial walls, resulting in a decreased blood supply. Atherosclerosis is a common arterial disorder characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris in the inner layer of the walls of large and medium-sized arteries.

The duration of operation varies from six- to eight-inch cut down the center of the breastbone so the surgeon can get directly at the heart. The body is connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that keeps the blood flowing. The surgical incision is closed by using special wires. After surgery, the patient is sent to an intensive care unit for a day or two for close monitoring. After which, the patient is transferred to the nursing unit for a week. After leaving the hospital, patient recovers progressively over the next two to four weeks. There are certain risks of infection and heavy bleeding & also there are risks associated with anaesthesia, breathing problems, Postoperative pneumonia, and wound infection also are common complications from open-heart surgery. The success rate for bypass surgery is 96 to 98 percent. That means between 2 and 4 percent of the patients can have complications.

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